Inability of activated carbon to prevent the toxicity of culture material containing fumonisin B1 when fed to weaned piglets

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J. Animal Sci.



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Fumonisins are mycotoxins found primarily in corn and corn products that are produced by Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and several other Fusarium species. The toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB) from culture material with and without activated carbon was evaluated using weanling piglets. Fifty-six weanling pigs were assigned to one of four treatments diets based on BW. The treatment diets were 1) control = corn-soybean basal diet with FB; 2) AC = control + activated carbon at 1% of the diet, as fed; 3) FB = control + culture material (formulated to contain 30 ppm FB, as-fed basis); and 4) AC + FB = control + activated carbon at 1% of the diet as fed + culture material (formulated to contain 30 ppm FB). A total of four replicates of four pigs per pen for the control and AC treatments and three piglets per pen for the FB and AC + FB treatments were used. Feed and water were offered ad libitum for the duration of the 42-d experiment. Compared with pigs fed the control or AC diets, pigs receiving the two FB-contaminated diets (FB or AC + FB) had lower G:F (P < 0.01), higher serum enzyme activities of γ-glutamyltransferase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of cholesterol, free sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and sphinganine 1-phosphate (P < 0.05). Although animals consuming FB diets showed no signs of respiratory distress, all pigs consuming either the FB or the AC + FB diets had marked pulmonary edema. Lesions were observed in the lungs, heart, and liver of pigs fed the FB or AC + FB diets, and treatment-associated changes also were seen in the pancreas, intestines, spleen, and lymph nodes. No lesions were observed in the brain. In liver, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes, the histopathological effects observed were more severe in the AC + FB group, suggesting that the AC treatment worsened the toxic effects of FB. Additionally, immunological measurements of macrophage function (CD14) were affected (P < 0.05) by the consumption of the FB diets. The consumption of FB diets containing 30 ppm fumonisin B1 from cultured material significantly affected performance, biochemical measurements, and organ pathology in weanling pigs. The addition of activated carbon at the rate of 1% to the diet was not effective in protecting against the detrimental effects of fumonisin consumption.