Ionophore use and toxicosis in cattle
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Gary Osweiler and Frank Galey
Ionophores comprise a rapidly expanding class of antibiotics produced by filamentous branching bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. The use of ionophores as coccidiostats and growth promotants has resulted in the occurrence of toxicoses in target and nontarget species. Clinical and pathologic effects of ionophore poisoning are caused by bioactivity and damage to excitable tissues such as cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and the nervous system. Ionophore toxicoses are often related to errors in feed mixing, so the practitioner should give primary importance to the removal of suspect feeds and testing to confirm excessive exposure.
Hall JO: Ionophore use and toxicosis in cattle. Gary Osweiler and Frank Galey, editors. W.B. Saunders Company. Vet Clin N Am 16(3): 497-509, 2000.