The designation of landscape-scale national monuments has generated intense debate as to whether their regional economic effects are positive or negative. National monuments can restrict land uses, thus favoring economic development based on the low-wage tourism industry relative to higher-wage extractive industries. Utah’s Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has been managed for landscape-scale conservation whilst protecting existing valid uses. We assess post-designation trends in the ranching, mining, and tourism industries, after which pre- and post-designation paths of per capita income are examined using difference-in-differences and synthetic control methods. We conclude that monument designation had no effect on regional per capita income.

Author ORCID Identifier

Paul M. Jakus

Sherzod B. Akhundjanov



Document Type




File Format

.csv, .dta, .do, .txt

Publication Date



Utah Agricultural Experiment Station; Utah State University Cooperative Extension


Utah State University


County-level economic data were collected from the interactive files maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Census data were downloaded from the Minnesota Population Center. Beef cattle data were obtained from USDA Agricultural Census; missing beef cattle values were filled in from Utah Agricultural Statistics annual reports.

Referenced by

Jakus, P. M., & Akhundjanov, S. B. (2018). Neither Boon nor Bane: The Economic Effects of a Landscape-Scale National Monument. Land Economics, 94(3), 323–339.



Code Lists

see the attached README file

Description or definition any other unique information that would help others use your data:

“Beef cattle inventory” and “Billed AUM and Drought” files were used for Figure 2 and Figure 3. Figures were generated in R by Rcode.txt file. Difference-in-Difference modeling (Table 4) was estimated in Stata 15 with the .dta and .do files. Synthetic control analysis was estimated in R using the “”UT_synthcontroldata” file and Rcode.txt.

Descriptions of parameters/variables

Stata data file GSENM-National Park Annual Visitation.dta

Stata data file for GSENM D-in-D.dta

The Stata .dta files include variable labels that provide full variable names and define variable coding.


Special software required to use data: Stata 15, R


Agricultural and Resource Economics


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



Additional Files

README.txt (4 kB)
MD5: 8cd9820db04cab9369cf023f00b1aaff

Beef cattle inventory Utah Garfield Kane.csv (1 kB)
MD5 :06057f180801b181412bd30e7c5fe06c

billed AUM and drought data.csv (1 kB)
MD5: 607558b8f7c601b38a85d4c5b4d4e144

Stata Data file GSENM-Natl Park Annual Visitation.dta (3 kB)
MD5: 2b34b43a7a1b9f01b575dee62159c3a3

Stata Data file for GSENM D-in-D models.dta (69 kB)
MD5: 79f454185537eac951033b4acf215517

Stata Code file for GSENM D-in-D (1 kB)
MD5: 24653eef9b0cb361802421e571223a56

UT_synthcontroldata 6-9-17.csv (232 kB)
MD5: 352bf8891cfeb83fd530bcc1ae46b894

Rcode.txt (18 kB)
MD5: ceef427e97a9147499775e6be009ab83 (475 kB)
MD5 :8b3d974704e1993c1141b798d0dbedd8

Read Me data file documentation.txt (4 kB)
MD5: 08123a3af8d62920d990d411fb3713ca