Vespine social wasps in temperate climates make annual colonies, each founded by a single queen in late spring. The queen builds her 'queen nest' and rears the first daughter workers which on emergence take over the tasks of building the nest and rearing the brood. The queen continues to lay the eggs. The sexuals (males and queens) emerge in the autumn and leave the colony for their mating flight, after which the queens enter hibernation for the unfavourable part of the year.
Archer, Michael E., "Successful and unsuccessful development of colonies of Vaspula vulgaris (Linn.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)" (1981). An. Paper 33.
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