Document Type


Journal/Book Title

Chemical Physics

Publication Date



Elsevier BV



First Page


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Last Page



Four H-binding HCl and HF molecules position themselves at the vertices of a tetrahedron when surrounding a central Cl-. Halogen bonding BrF and ClF form a slightly distorted tetrahedron, a tendency that is amplified for ClCN which forms a trigonal pyramid. Chalcogen bonding SF2, SeF2, SeFMe, and SeCSe occupy one hemisphere of the central ion, leaving the other hemisphere empty. This pattern is repeated for pnicogen bonding PF3, SeF3 and AsCF. The clustering of solvent molecules on one side of the Cl- is attributed to weak attractive interactions between them, including chalcogen, pnicogen, halogen, and hydrogen bonds. Binding energies of four solvent molecules around a central Na+ are considerably reduced relative to chloride, and the geometries are different, with no empty hemisphere. The driving force maximizes the number of electronegative (F or O) atoms close to the Na+, and the presence of noncovalent bonds between solvent molecules.

Included in

Chemistry Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.