Spoken and Written Language Relationships in Language/Learning Impaired and Normally Achieving School-Age Children.
Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
Students with language/learning impairment (LLI) and threegroups of normally achieving children matched for chronologicalage, spoken language, and reading abilities wrote and told storiesthat were analyzed according to a three-dimensional languageanalysis system. Spoken narratives were linguistically superiorto written narratives in many respects. The content of writtennarratives, however, was organized differently than the contentof spoken narratives. Spoken narratives contained more localinterconnections than global interconnections; the oppositewas true for written narratives. LLI and reading-matched childrenevidenced speaking-writing relationships that differed fromthose of the age- and language-matched children in the way languageform was organized. Further, LLI children produced more grammaticallyunacceptable complex T-units in their spoken and written storiesthan students from any of the three matched groups. The discussionfocuses on mechanisms underlying the development of speaking-writingdifferences and ramifications of spoken-language impairmentfor spoken and written-language relationships.
Gillam, R. B., & Johnston, J. (1992). Spoken and written language relationships in language/learning impaired and normally achieving school-age children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, (6), 1303-1315.