Development of Print Awareness in Language-Disordered Preschoolers.
Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
This study examined print awareness and related oral languageabilities in language-disordered and normally developing preschoolers.Twenty subjects, ages 3:1 to 6:5 (years:months), were shownhigh frequency environmental print in four conditions varyingin the amount of non-print information present in the printsetting. They were asked to match the print to the object thatit signified and to provide verbal labels for the same objects.Results indicated that normal-language children were respondingmeaningfully to print settings that contained reduced non-printcues while the language-disordered subjects were not. Generallanguage ability was correlated with print awareness, but knowledgeof specific oral lexemes was not necessary for accurate printresponses. Parent questionnaire data suggested that group differencesdid not result from differential prior experience with the printitems. Results are discussed with reference to hypothesizedrelationships between oral and written language.
Gillam, R. B., & Johnston, J. (1985). Development of print awareness in language-disordered preschoolers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 28, (4), 521-526.