Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences

Committee Chair(s)

Michael J. Arambel


Michael J. Arambel


Paul Dawson


Barbara Kent


Daeyoon Kim


Carlos E. Batallas


Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannula were used to determine crude protein and dry matter rate of disappearance of two protein supplements: 1) soybean meal and 2) bypass protein blend by using the in situ bag technique. Rate disappearance (%/hr) was higher for soybean meal. Two collection periods were completed using 6 cows with a minimum of 21 d adaptation to the treatment top dressed on to the total mixed ration. Ruminal concentration of ammonia N, blood ammonia, and urea did not differ between treatments. Total concentration of volatile fatty acids was higher for bypass protein blend-fed cattle as well as percent molar concentration of propionate, butyrate, and valerate, while pH was lower. Total protozoa, and total and cellulolytic viable bacteria populations did not differ. Four of the cows received a dose of 5 ml of Prostaglandin F,α. Blood and cervical mucus samples obtained showed no difference in blood ammonia and urea concentration. Forty-six Holstein cows were assigned to one of the two treatments (top dressed on the total mixed ration), according to parity during the following 125 d postpartum. Daily dry matter intake and milk production were recorded. Feed, orts, and feces were sampled. Milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for components. Percent lactose and solid non-fat showed higher for cattle fed the bypass prorein blend. Starting on day 10 postpartum, cows were observed for signs of estrus and bred at first estrus observed after 45 d postpartum. Cervical mucus and blood collected at first standing estrus, and first, second, and third service, did not show a significant difference in urea concentration between rations. Twice-weekly collected blood samples showed similar monthly mean concentration of ammonia, urea, and progesterone profile for both treatment groups. Percent pregnancy, services per pregnancy, first service pregnancy and embryo mortality showed no significant difference. Motility and survivability of bull sperm were evaluated by incubating thawed semen in different levels of previously observed and/or ammonia. physiological There were no concentrations of urea significant treatment differences observed. Detrimental effects of treatment on sperm were not detected.



Included in

Dairy Science Commons