#### Date of Award:

5-2023

#### Document Type:

Dissertation

#### Degree Name:

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

#### Department:

Computer Science

#### Committee Chair(s)

Haitao Wang

#### Committee

Haitao Wang

#### Committee

David Brown

#### Committee

Curtis Dyreson

#### Committee

Steve Petruzza

#### Committee

Shuhan Yuan

#### Abstract

In this dissertation, we study algorithms for several problems on unit-disk graphs and related problems. The unit-disk graph can be viewed as an intersection graph of a set of congruent disks. Unit-disk graphs have been extensively studied due to many of their applications, e.g., modeling the topology of wireless sensor networks. Lots of problems on unit-disk graphs have been considered in the literature, such as shortest paths, clique, independent set, distance oracle, diameter, etc. Specifically, we study the following problems in this dissertation: *L*_{1} shortest paths in unit-disk graphs, reverse shortest paths in unit-disk graphs, minimum bottleneck moving spanning tree, unit-disk range reporting, distance selection, etc. We develop efficient algorithms for these problems and our results are either first-known solutions or somehow improve the previous work.

Given a set *P* of *n* points in the plane and a parameter *r* > 0, a unit-disk graph *G*(*P*) can be defined using *P* as its vertex set and two points of *P* are connected by an edge if the distance between these two points is at most *r*. The weight of an edge is one in the unweighted case and is equal to the distance between the two endpoints in the weighted case. Note that the distance between two points can be measured by different metrics, e.g., *L*_{1} or *L*_{2} metric.

In the first problem of *L*_{1} shortest paths in unit-disk graphs, we are given a point set *P* and a source point *s* ∈ *P*, the problem is to find all shortest paths from *s* to all other vertices in the *L*_{1} weighted unit-disk graph defined on set *P*. We present an *O*(*n* log *n*) time algorithm, which matches the Ω(*n* log *n*)-time lower bound. In the second problem, we are given a set *P* of *n* points, parameters *r*, λ > 0, and two points *s* and *t* of *P*, the goal is to compute the smallest *r* such that the shortest path length between *s* and *t* in the unit-disk graph with respect to set *P* and parameter *r* is at most λ. This problem can be defined in both unweighted and weighted cases. We propose an algorithm of *O*(⌊λ⌋ · *n* log *n*) time and another algorithm of *O*(*n*^{5/4} log^{7/4} *n*) time for the unweighted case. We also given an *O*(*n*^{5/4} log^{5/2} *n*) time algorithm for the weighted case. In the third problem, we are given a set *P* of *n* points that are moving in the plane, the problem is to compute a spanning tree for these moving points that does not change its combinatorial structure during the point movement such that the bottleneck weight of the spanning tree (i.e., the largest Euclidean length of all edges) during the whole movement is minimized. We present an algorithm that runs in *O*(*n*^{4/3} log^{3} *n*) time. The fourth problem is unit-disk range reporting in which we are given a set *P* of *n* points in the plane and a value *r*, we need to construct a data structure so that given any query disk of radius *r*, all points of *P* in the disk can be reported efficiently. We build a data structure of *O*(*n*) space in *O*(*n* log *n*) time that can answer each query in *O*(*k* + log *n*) time, where *k* is the output size. The time complexity of our algorithm is the same as the previous result but our approach is much simpler. Finally, for the problem of distance selection, we are given a set *P* of *n* points in the plane and an integer 1 ≤ *k* ≤ (^{n}_{2}), the distance selection problem is to find the *k*-th smallest interpoint distance among all pairs of points of *p*. We propose an algorithm that runs in *O*(*n*^{4/3} log *n*) time. Our techniques yield two algorithmic frameworks for solving geometric optimization problems.

Many algorithms and techniques developed in this dissertation are quite general and fundamental, and we believe they will find other applications in future.

#### Checksum

be584b611d89a889f152faa99650ff2e

#### Recommended Citation

Zhao, Yiming, "Algorithms for Unit-Disk Graphs and Related Problems" (2023). *All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023*. 8769.

https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/8769

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