Benjamin J. Burger
Every moment of your life will be from the perspective of a single planet— Planet Earth. You were born here and you will die here. This textbook is a guide to your home, to your place in the universe. By taking this course, you will learn about your home planet. How it works and how we know it works this way. This course is an users-manual for planet Earth, with direct recommendations for future generations such as yourself to maintain its health and natural wonders.
Charles G. Torre
This is an introduction to classical field theory. Topics treated include: Klein-Gordon field, electromagnetic field, scalar electrodynamics, Dirac field, Yang-Mills field, gravitational field, Noether theorems relating symmetries and conservation laws, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.
Man-Keun Kim, Bruce A. McCarl, and Thomas H. Spreen
This book is intended to both serve as a reference guide and a text for a course on Applied Mathematical Programming for upper undergraduate and Master level students in Economics, Applied Economics, Agricultural and Resource Economics, and Management; primarily based on McCarl and Spreen (2013). The material presented in McCarl and Spreen (2013) concentrates upon conceptual issues, problem formulation, computerized problem solution, and results interpretation; it is designed for the advanced readers who are familiar with mathematical economics including linear and matrix algebra and also with advanced modeling skills. Upper level undergraduate and/or Master students may not be beneficial from the book.
This booklet is intended to serve as an introductory guide and covers very basics of conceptual issues in mathematical programming and explores problem formulation with applied issues in decision making. Advanced topics including solution algorithms will be discussed only to the extent necessary to build the model and interpret solutions.
Brian Champagne, Kiera Farimond, and Brianna Bodily
Welcome to Writing for Electronic Media, an OER textbook. OER stands for Open Educational Resource, which means it’s free for all who access. Since it is electronic, I will do what I can to keep it updated with the changing media. People’s viewing habits are changing as they migrate to mobile sources, social media, and kitten videos. Television News is still a dominant #1 source, and radio is still the safest way to stay informed in your car. Hopefully, you already have some journalism background. This book does not teach the who, what, when, where, why, and how of reporting; its goal is to teach how to present the journalism you already know via electronic media, primarily television.
Jessica Mellenthin and Susan O. Shapiro
Descriptions of figures found in classical mythology.
There are actually many different types of myth, not just three. In fact, there are several entire theories of myth. The theoretical study of myth is very complex; many books have been written about theories of myth, and we could have an entire class just on theories of myth (without studying any of the myths themselves). The problem with theories of myth, however, is that they are not very good; they don’t do a great job of explaining the myths or in helping us understand them. Furthermore, the myths themselves are much more interesting than the theories. For this reason, this textbook will not say very much about the theories of myth. But we don’t want to ignore the theoretical study of myth entirely, so we will limit ourselves to discussing only three types of myth.
The title of this book is Speaking of Culture and its purpose is to define culture and many other concepts associated with it. My hope is that the readings in this book will help you to better understand the breadth of the concept of culture and provide you with a vocabulary for discussing it more articulately.
Culture is one of those broad concepts that is used widely, although somewhat imprecisely, in everyday English. It also cuts across many academic disciplines, and this book draws on many of them. It touches, for instance, on anthropology, biology, history, mythology, political science, psychology, and sociology.
Mark E. Fels
The outline of the book is as follows. Chapter 1 reviews some basic facts about smooth functions from IRn to IRm, as well as the basic facts about vector spaces, basis, and algebras. Chapter 2 introduces tangent vectors and vector fields in IRn using the standard two approaches with curves and derivations. Chapter 3 reviews linear transformations and their matrix representation so that in Chapter 4 the push-forward as an abstract linear transformation can be defined and its matrix representation as the Jacobian can be derived. As an application, the change of variable formula for vector fields is derived in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 develops the linear algebra of the dual space and the space of bi-linear functions and demonstrates how these concepts are used in defining differential one-forms and metric tensor fields. Chapter 6 introduces the pullback map on one-forms and metric tensors from which the important concept of isometries is then defined. Chapter 7 investigates hyper-surfaces in IRn, using patches and defines the induced metric tensor from Euclidean space. The change of coordinate formula on overlaps is then derived. Chapter 8 returns to IRn to define a flow and investigates the relationship between a flow and its infinitesimal generator. The theory of flow invariants is then investigated both infinitesimally and from the flow point of view with the goal of proving the rectification theorem for vector fields. Chapter 9 investigates the Lie bracket of vector-fields and Killing vectors for a metric. Chapter 10 generalizes chapter 8 and introduces the general notion of a group action with the goal of providing examples of metric tensors with a large number of Killing vectors. It also introduces a special family of Lie groups which I've called multi-parameter groups. These are Lie groups whose domain is an open set in IRn. The infinitesimal generators for these groups are used to construct the left and right invariant vector-fields on the group, as well as the Killing vectors for some special invariant metric tensors on the groups.
A Guide to the Identification of Tailed Myxobolidae of the World: Dicauda, Hennegoides, Henneguya, Laterocaudata, Neohenneguya, Phlogospora, Tetrauromena, Trigonosporus and Unicauda
Eric J. Wagner
The phylum Myxozoa contains over 2100 species of parasites that principally infect fish, although some species infect amphibian and reptilian hosts (Kudo 1920; Lom and Dykova 2006; Yokoyama et al. 2012). Myxozoans are multicellular, comprised of 1 to 7 spore shell valves, 1-2 infective germ sporoplasms, and 2 to 7 polar capsules (Lom and Dyková 1992). The polar capsules contain an extrudible filament used for attachment to a host, similar to the stinging cells of Cnidaria. After attachment, 1 to 2 amoeboid sporoplasms infect the target tissue and begin development. See Lom and Dyková (1992) for details on development of the trophozooite, plasmodia, and mature spores. Several myxozoan parasites studied to date have a life cycle with two hosts: fish and aquatic oligochaete or polychaete worms (Lom and Dyková 2006). The myxospore stage infects the worm host when ingested, which produces the actinospore stage that infects the fish host. Yokoyama et al. (2012) listed 33 myxozoan species for which the corresponding actinospore stage has been identified. These species include Myxobolus cerebralis (Wolf and Markiw 1984), the first species deduced to have a complex two-host life cycle. Other species within Myxobolidae include M. cotti (El-Matbouli and Hoffman 1989), M. carassii (El-Matbouli and Hoffmann 1993), M. arcticus (Kent et al. 1993), M. drjagini (El-Mansy and Molnar 1997a), M. portucalensis (El-Mansy et al. 1998), M. hungaricus (El-Mansy and Molnar 1997b), M. psuedodispar (Székely et al. 2001), M. bramae (Eszterbauer et al. 2000), M. macrocapsularis (Székely et al. 2002), and M. parviformis (Kallert et al. 2005). Among Henneguya species, only H. exilis, H. ictaluri, H. mississippiensis and H. neusslini have had the actinospore stage discovered (aurantiactinomyxon or triactinomyxon; Yokoyama et al. 2012; Rosser et al. 2015). So, many species have not had their complete life cycle determined yet. Likely, future taxonomic revisions of Myxozoa will consider the morphology of the actinospore stage, which varies among the known life cycles (e.g., hexactinomyxon, raabeia, triactinomyxon; Lom and Dyková 2006). See Yokoyama et al. (2012) for a key to these actinospore types.
The organisms in this guide are in the family Myxobilidae within suborder Platysporina, order Bivalvulida, class Myxosporea, phylum Myxozoa. The family Myxobolidae Thélohan 1892 is characterized by spores flattened parallel to the straight sutural line and two polar capsules (which may be unequal in length). The genera of Myxobolidae that lack tails, i.e., Myxobolus, Spirosutoria, Neothelohanellus, Thelohanellus, Neothelohanellus, are not covered in this guide. This summary covers the genera that have appendages that look like ‘tails’, i.e., Henneguya, Hennegoides, Neohenneguya, Unicauda, Dicauda, Laterocaudata, Phlogospora, and Tetrauronema, and Trigonosporus. The tailed spores of Myxobilatus (family Parvicapsulidae, suborder Variisporina), which look similar to Henneguyaspores, but have striated shells and the suture line bisects the polar capsules, are also not included in this guide, other than in the family key. I have chosen to use the word ‘tail’ instead of ‘caudal appendage’ or ‘caudal projection’ to make the guide more user friendly and to use less space in the text boxes. For similar reasons I have chosen to use the word ‘cyst’ instead of ‘trophozooite’.
János M. Bak
A practical guide on the editing of medieval--mainly Latin--manuscripts for editors and users of MSS. It discusses basic issues of textual and manuscript transmission and contains guidelines for the description and textual analysis of manuscripts, the emendation and editing of texts, and a chapter on questions of translation and bi-lingual editions.
An updated and revised version is available in paperback from Gorgias Press: https://www.gorgiaspress.com/introduction-to-working-with-manuscripts-for-medievalists
Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang and Robert R. Gillies
Climatology, the study of climate, is no longer regarded as a single discipline that treats climate as something that fluctuates only within the unchanging boundaries described by historical statistics. The field has recognized that climate is something that changes continually under the influence of physical and biological forces and so, cannot be understood in isolation but rather, is one that includes diverse scientific disciplines that play their role in understanding a highly complex coupled “whole system” that is the Earth’s climate. The modern era of climatology is echoed in this book. On the one hand it offers a broad synoptic perspective but also considers the regional standpoint as it is this that affects what people need from climatology, albeit water resource managers or engineers etc. Aspects on the topic of climate change – what is often considered a contradiction in terms – is also addressed. It is all too evident these days that what recent work in climatology has revealed carries profound implications for economic and social policy; it is with these in mind that the final chapters consider acumens as to the application of what has been learned to date. This book is divided into four sections that cover sub-disciplines in climatology. The first section contains four chapters that pertain to synoptic climatology, i.e., the study of weather disturbances including hurricanes, monsoon depressions, synoptic waves, and severe thunderstorms; these weather systems directly impact humanity. The second section on regional climatology has four chapters that describe the climate features within physiographically defined areas. The third section is on climate change which involves both past (paleoclimate) and future climate: The first two chapters cover certain facets of paleoclimate while the third is centered towards the signals (observed or otherwise) of climate change. The fourth and final section broaches the sub-discipline that is often referred to as applied climatology; this represents the important goal of all studies in climatology–one that affects modes of living. Here, three chapters are devoted towards the application of climatological research that might have useful application for operational purposes in industrial, manufacturing, agricultural, technological and environmental affairs.
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P. S.G. Watson and A. F. Baker