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Ripple Climatology Observed in the Mesopause Region Over Maui, Hawaii

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Airglow imaging observations have been analyzed to investigate small-scale, short period gravity waves "bands" and wave-like patterns, known as "ripples", and their horizontal characteristics in the mesopause region over Maui, Hawaii (20.7° N, 156.3° W). Measurements were obtained using the Utah State University (USU) Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM), a high performance imaging system, based on the OH and O2 nightglow emission layers centered at altitudes of ~87 km and ~ 94 km, respectively. The ripples with small horizontal wavelengths (<~15 km), horizontal phase speeds (<~50 m/s) and short periods (<~10 min) were observed during 2003-2004 periods, while bands were observed during the a one year period in 2004. Here we determine the occurrence frequency and horizontal parameters of ripple events and compare clear preferential propagation directions of ripples with bands in summer and winter.


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