Risk Factors for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Dementia: The Cache County Study
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Objective: To investigate the probability of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients as a function of eight risk factors. Methods: In the Cache County Study, we administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to 328 dementia patients at baseline. Approximately 18 months later, we re-administered the NPI to 184 participants available for follow-up. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to model the probability of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms as a function of: gender, age, education, dementia type and severity, APOE status, time of observation, and general medical health. Results: Women showed increased tendency toward anxiety, [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.76] and delusions (OR 2.15, CI 1.22-3.78), but older persons of both sexes showed less tendency toward anxiety. Dementia severity increased the tendency toward hallucinations and agitation (OR 2.42, CI 1.81-3.23) and decreased risk of depression. Positive APOE 4 status increased the tendency toward aberrant motor behavior (OR 1.84, CI 1.05-3.22). Among dementia diagnoses, those with Alzheimer's disease showed decreased tendency toward agitation (OR 0.58, CI 0.35-0.95), depression (OR 0.56, CI 0.33-0.96) and disinhibition (OR 0.46, CI 0.24-0.88). Later time of observation increased risk of aberrant motor behavior and delusions, and more serious medical comorbidity increased risk of, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. Conclusions: Gender, age, dementia severity, APOE 4, dementia diagnosis, time of observation, and general medical health appear to influence the occurrence of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Steinberg M, Corcoran C, Tschanz JT, Huber C, Welsh-Bohmer K, Norton MC, Zandi P, Breitner JCS, Steffens DC, Lyketsos CG. Risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: The Cache County Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;21(9):824-830.