Methods for Coping with Premenstrual Change: Development and Validation of the German Premenstrual Change Coping Inventory (PMS-Cope).

Gudrun Kaiser, Philipps-University of Marburg
Johanna N. Kues, Philipps-University of Marburg
Maria Kleinstäuber, Philipps-University of Marburg
Gerhard Andersson, Linköping University
Cornelia Weise, Philipps-University of Marburg


During the premenstrual phase, psychological and physiological changes can occur, which are associated with different levels of disability. When they appear with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), different coping strategies may be used by women to deal with premenstrual changes. Currently no German measure exists for assessing premenstrual symptom-related coping strategies. Therefore, we developed the Premenstrual Change Coping Inventory (PMS-Cope). First, the 33-item questionnaire was tested with an exploratory factor analytic approach (EFA) in a sample of 150 women prospectively diagnosed with PMDD or severe Premenstrual Syndrome from August 2013 until March 2016. The EFA resulted in a 12-item scale with a two-factor structure: “seeking positive affect-inducing activities” and “seeking support”; Cronbach`s alpha of 0.73 and 0.71, respectively, demonstrated good reliability for both factors. Confirmatory factor analysis based on a second sample of 89 women conducted from May 2016 until June 2016 confirmed the two-factor structure. Additionally, a potential third factor “healthcare use behavior” was tested with an EFA. For the three-factor solution, satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.70–0.72) were detected. The PMS-Cope was shown to be a valid, reliable, and economic measure. In future research, cross validations and confirmatory factor analyses with the three-factor solution should be conducted.