Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

The Clinical Journal of Pain

Author ORCID Identifier

Maria Kleinstäuber






Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Publication Date


Journal Article Version

Accepted Manuscript

First Page


Last Page




Patients' beliefs about pain play an important role in their readiness to engage with chronic pain self-management. The central aim of this study was to validate a self-report instrument to assess a specific set of pain beliefs, patients' endorsement of a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain (PEB).


Interdisciplinary experts in the field of pain were involved in creating an instrument, the PEB Scale, to operationalize patients' endorsement of a biopsychosocial pain model. A sample of 199 patients with chronic pain was recruited to evaluate the factorial structure (principal axis factoring), the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), the convergent and discriminant validity (correlational analyses), incremental validity (multiple, hierarchical regression analyses), and construct validity (differential population analysis) of the instrument.


The factor analysis resulted in a unidimensional, 11-item instrument that explained 51.2% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha (= 0.92) indicated high internal consistency of the created set of pain-related beliefs. Regression analyses demonstrated that PEB is a strong predictor of patients' engagement with pain self-management (P < 0.001) after controlling for demographic variables, anxiety, depression, and other pain-related beliefs.


Our results show that the PEB Scale is a highly reliable self-report instrument that has the potential to predict patients' readiness to adopt pain self-management. Future research should focus on revalidating the scale to operationalize PEB. Moreover, the PEB Scale should be implemented in longitudinal study designs to investigate its ability to predict the transition from acute to chronic pain and patients' long-term pain management.


This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Kleinstäuber, Maria PhD; Garland, Eric L. PhD; Sisco-Taylor, Brittany L. PhD; Sanyer, Mathias BSc; Corfe-Tan, Julia BPharm(Hons); Barke, Antonia PhD. Endorsing a Biopsychosocial Perspective of Pain in Individuals With Chronic Pain: Development and Validation of a Scale. The Clinical Journal of Pain 40(1):p 35-45, January 2024. DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000001163.

Available for download on Wednesday, January 01, 2025