Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Sexuality and Culture

Author ORCID Identifier

Samuel Skidmore




Springer New York LLC

Publication Date


Journal Article Version

Accepted Manuscript

First Page


Last Page



Coming out involves sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) disclosing their identity to others, and is often related to improved health, well-being, and social support. However, coming out is not always perceived as a positive event, and outcomes of identity disclosure may vary depending on how coming out is approached and how others respond. The present study reports on the development and validation of the Coming Out Vigilance (COV) and the Positive Coming Out Responses (PCOR) measures. Two subsamples of SGMs with varying degrees of outness— totaling 399 individuals—were utilized in the development and validation of these measures. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested final scales comprising three items for the COV and eight items for the PCOR. These measures demonstrated acceptable (COV) to excellent (PCOR) internal consistency, as well as metric and scalar invariance between relevant demographic groups. The COV evidenced strong convergent and discriminant validity, negatively correlating with other measures of outness and concealment typically between r = .2 and r = .5. The PCOR did not evidence convergent or discriminant validity with measures of outness or concealment, suggesting that positive coming out responses are conceptually distinct from outness. Both measures also evidenced predictive validity with measures of mental health, well-being, and sexual identity. Taken together, initial findings indicate that the COV and PCOR are psychometrically sound and may be utilized in both research and clinical settings.


This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:

Available for download on Sunday, September 22, 2024