Food Deprivation Level Alters the Effects of Morphine on Pigeons' Key Pecking
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Four pigeons pecked response keys under a multiple fixed-ratio 30 fixed-interval 5-min schedule of food presentation. Components alternated separated by 15-s timeouts; each was presented six times. Pigeons were maintained at 70%, 85%, and greater than 90% of their free-feeding weights across experimental conditions. When response rates were stable, the effects of morphine (0.56 to 10.0 mg/kg) and saline were investigated. Morphine reduced response rates in a dose-dependent manner under the fixed-ratio schedule and at high doses under the fixed-interval schedule. In some cases, low doses of morphine increased rates under the fixed-interval schedule. When pigeons were less food deprived, reductions in pecking rates occurred at lower doses under both schedules for 3 of 4 birds compared to when they were more food deprived. When pigeons were more food deprived, low doses of morphine increased rates of pecking in the initial portions of fixed intervals by a greater magnitude. Thus, food-deprivation levels altered both the rate-decreasing and rate-increasing effects of morphine. These effects may share a common mechanism with increased locomotor activity produced by drugs and with increased drug self-administration under conditions of more severe food deprivation.
Odum, A. L., Haworth, S. C., & Schaal, D. W. (1998). Food deprivation level alters the effects of morphine on pigeons' key pecking. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 69, 295-310.