The performance of three baffled model ponds was monitored and compared to the performance of an unbaffled model pond utilizing four hydraulic and organic loading rates. All four ponds were operated simultaneously under the same environmental conditions using a synthetic wastewater. Removal of organic carbon by the biological system in the different pond configurations only varied from 94-98 percent at the longest detention time (15 days); however, a considerable effect of the baffling was observed at the lower detention times. At a hydraulic detention time of 1.5 days the percent carbon removal was 53, 60, 62, and 70 percent for the control, end-around, over-and-under, and longitudinal baffling systems, respectively. The biological kinetics of the model ponds were determined using three mathematical models. Performance was evaluated by using the kinetic parameters and conventional stabilization pond operating parameters. Direct comparisons with the performance parameters of the model ponds appear valid for analysis of the three models studied. The performance of the baffled ponds was described by a completely mixed model incorporating attached biomass; however, the performance of the unbaffled control pond was not described by the completely mixed model. Performance parameters of the baffled, model ponds were significantly better than the control pond.
Nielson, Stephen B.; Middlebrooks, E. Joe; and Porcella, Donald B., "Effects of Baffles on the Performance of Anerobic Waste Stabilization Ponds" (1973). Reports. Paper 172.