Contribution to Book
Ramesh C. Gupta
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential nutrient in plants and animals. Thorough reviews on Mo have been published (Dick, 1956; Underwood, 1977; Ward, 1978; Friberg and Lener, 1986; Mills and Davis, 1987; Rajagopalan, 1988; Nielsen, 1996; Johnson, 1997; NRC, 2006). In plants and microbes, reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen fixation requires Mo (Williams and daSilva, 2002). Higher animals require Mo for oxygen transfer reactions of aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and xanthine oxidase, where Mo is bound to a pterin nucleus (Johnson et.al., 1980). Although dietary clinical deficiencies have not been reported under natural conditions (Mills and Davis, 1987), deficiency has been produced in animals fed purified Mo deficient diets (Mills and Bremner, 1980; Anke et.al., 1985). Functional Mo deficiency has been caused by genetic disorders in humans (Reiss, 2000) and competitive replacement of tungsten for Mo in enzymes (Nell et.al., 1980). And, iatrogenic Mo deficiency, resulting in aberrant sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism, has been reported following prolonged total parenteral nutrition (Abumrad et.al., 1981).
Hall, J. 2007. Molybdenum In: Veterinary Toxicology 449-452.