Document Type

Conference Paper

Journal/Book Title/Conference

2024 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association


Philadelphia, PA

Publication Date


Award Number

NSF, Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings (DRL) 2031382 and 2031404

Award Title

Collaborative Research: Supporting Rural Paraprofessional Educators and their Students with Computer Science Professional Learning and Expansively Framed Curriculum

Funding Agency

National Science Foundation, Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings (DRL)

First Page


Last Page



This paper presents a novel approach for predicting the outcomes of elementary students’ participation in computer science (CS) instruction by using exit tickets, a type of practical measure, where students provide rapid feedback on their instructional experiences. Such feedback can help teachers to inform ongoing teaching and instructional practices. We fit a Structural Equation Model to examine whether students' perceptions of enjoyment, ease, and connections between mathematics and CS in an integrated lesson predicted their affective outcomes in self-efficacy, interest, and CS identity, collected in a pre- post- survey. We found that practical measures can validly measure student experiences.


This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant no. 2031382 and 2031404. Opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agency. We thank the participating teachers and students.