Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies

Author ORCID Identifier

Vanessa Echeverria

LuEttaMae Lawrence


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



Combining individual and collaborative learning is common, but dynamic combinations (which happen as-the-need arises, rather than in pre-planned ways, and may happen on an individual basis) are rare. This work reports findings from a technology probe study exploring alternative designs for classroom co-orchestration support for dynamically transitioning between individual and collaborative learning. The study involved 1) a technology-probe classroom study in an authentic, AI-supported classroom to understand teachers' and students' needs for co-orchestration support over dynamic transitions; and 2) workshops and interviews with students and teachers to get informed feedback about their lived experiences. 118 students and three teachers from a middle school in the US experienced a pairing policy – student, teacher and, AI-controlled pairing policy – (i.e., identifying students needing help and potential helpers) for switching from individual to a peer tutoring activity. This work aims to answer the following questions: 1) How did students and teachers react to these pairing policies?; and 2) What are students' and teachers' desires for sharing control over the orchestration of dynamic transitions? Findings suggest the need for a form of hybrid control between students, teachers, and AI systems over transitions, as well as for adaptivity and adaptability for different classroom characteristics, teachers, and students' prior knowledge.


© 2023 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.