Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Human–Wildlife Interactions

The following abbreviated format and submission guidelines helps authors ensure that manuscript preparation adheres to Human–Wildlife Interactions requirements. See the complete Guidelines for authors and reviewers of Human–Wildlife Interactions manuscripts for detailed formatting and style details and example text.

Formatting and Style

Article length

HWI considers articles of any length not likely to exceed 15 pages in print (about 40 double-spaced manuscript pages, including tables and figures).

Format for features

Contributions to Reviews have a format identical to regular articles except that the author name and address section appears at the end of the article. Contributions to In My Opinion, Commentary, and Research or Management Articles or Notes have a format identical to regular articles except that these articles do not have an abstract. Other features may be created or changes may be made to existing features as HWI evolves to better address the needs of the wildlife professional.

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Article Components


The abstract, which appears in peer-reviewed and peer-edited manuscripts, should present a statement of findings in one paragraph not to exceed 3% of the length of the text, including the literature cited. It should include the following information: 1) Problem studied, question answered, or hypothesis tested and justification for study. What was it and why is it important? Indicate new data, ideas, or interpretations used directly or indirectly to manage wildlife. 2) Pertinent methods. State the methods used to achieve the results summarized in the Results (keep the methods brief unless a new, greatly improved method is being reported). 3) Results. Highlight the most important results, positive or negative. 4) Applicability of results. Explain how, where, when, and by whom data or interpretations can be applied to wildlife problems or contribute to knowledge of wildlife science.

Key Words

List 4 to 10 key words, in alphabetical order, that best describe major topics in the manuscript. Your key words will help researchers locate your article using abstracting services. In selecting key words, you should consider who would be interested in finding your article and what key works they will be using in their search. Key words will appear immediately after the abstract. Do not capitalize key words unless they are words that require capitalization, such as proper nouns (e.g., Canada goose). Key words should be separated by a comma; however, there is no punctuation after the last key word.


Typically, articles include introductory content as well as boldfaced section headings related to the study area, methods, results, discussion, and management implications. Boldfaced subheadings may also be used, and third-level headings should be indented and italicized.


The acknowledgments appear immediately before the literature cited section and should be brief. All acknowledgments should include both initials (where appropriate) and the last name of individuals acknowledged. Wording should be simple, without qualifying adjectives. A. Ballard provided valuable assistance in preparing the appendices for this revision. D. L. Minnis provided assistance with reviewing drafts.

Literature Cited

In formatting literature cited entries, use the word-processing ruler to create hanging indents, not tabs or space bar. Type the citations double spaced, immediately following the text. Citations should be alphabetized by authors’ surnames, regardless of the number of multiple authors for the same publication. Within alphabetical order, the sequencing is chronological. Use upper- and lowercase letters (typing all capital letters complicates editing names such as DeGraaf and van Druff). Use 2 initials (where applicable) with one space between each initial. If citations have >1 reference for the same author(s) in the same year, differentiate the publications alphabetically and add a, b, c (in italics) etc. after the year for each entry. Always write out all author names, even for multiple citations by the same author(s).

Whenever possible, rather than Internet sources, cite the original sources (i.e., a hard or paper copy). However, if citing an Internet source, provide the date accessed within the literature cited.

See the complete Guidelines for authors and reviewers of Human–Wildlife Interactions manuscripts for further guidance and example citations to format the literature cited section of your manuscript. Please refer to a recent issue of HWI for additional examples.

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Tables and Figures


Tables should be created using the table function of the word processing software. Do not use tabs or spaces to create tables. Put only 1 row of text in 1 row of cells, and never use a multiple-text column format within a table. Do not prepare tables for small data sets (those containing many blank spaces, zeros, repetitions of the same number or those with few or no significant data); include such data in the text. For data that must be shown in a table, items that provide the most important comparisons usually read vertically, not horizontally.

See the complete Guidelines for authors and reviewers of Human–Wildlife Interactions manuscripts for detailed table formatting requirements and example tables.


HWI editors encourage the use of line drawings, photographs, or other illustrations that improve communication. Avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible. Lettering in figures should be sentence case (i.e., mixed-case letters) and must be >1 mm tall when the figure is reduced. Type all figure captions on one page and label each figure. The caption may be several sentences long and include brief suggestions for reading and interpreting the figure. Photos are considered figures and, as such, should include captions and a statement of credit at the end of the caption.

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Author Checklist

  • Article is written in English and has been copyedited to ensure proper grammar and spelling.
  • Manuscript includes all required sections based on intended article category.
  • Manuscript includes numbered lines so reviewers and editorial staff may reference portions of the text.
  • Scientific names are written correctly and are included at the first mention of a species in the abstract and text.
  • Literature cited section includes complete references with the necessary information, including access dates for Internet citations.
  • Literature cited section is formatted to HWI specifications.
  • All references appearing within the content of the manuscript also appear in the literature cited section, and vice versa.
  • Tables are formatted to HWI specifications, including table titles, and any necessary superscripts relate to their corresponding footnotes.
  • Figures include captions and photo credits if needed, and are prepared in high-resolution according to HWI specifications.

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