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The vast majority of wildlife species provide a net benefit to society; thus, the problems that wildlife often create for humans are overshadowed by the many benefits they provide. However, the rapid expansion of global urban and rural development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. This co-existence and subsequent dependency has contributed to increased human–wildlife conflicts, which can involve larger charismatic mega-fauna such as bears (Ursus spp.) to smaller microscopic species. Human–bear conflicts probably have occurred since humans first inhabited the planet. Although bears have substantial ecological, aesthetic, and economic value, bears using urban areas and the urban–rural interface are often perceived as being urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human– wildlife conflict. For many bear populations, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human–bear conflicts.