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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are increasing globally and contributing to the decline of wildlife species. In sub-Saharan African countries such as Namibia, most of the suitable land has been or is currently being converted to crop and livestock production to support income or subsistence agriculture. These changes in land use often incur increased levels of HWCs because of crop and livestock depredation by native species. To quantify livestock predation risks posed by carnivores in Namibia, we deployed 30 trail cameras on a 6,500-ha farm in the Khomas region of Namibia from May to July 2018. We developed occupancy models to make inferences about the factors influencing presence and temporal activity patterns of 2 carnivore species. We found that livestock were most at risk from predation by black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) at night in agricultural areas and from brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea) at night in riparian habitats. Our results suggest that farmers can reduce HWC risks by implementing animal husbandry practices to include protecting livestock at night using methods such as nighttime corrals and livestock guarding dogs (C. lupus familiaris), or herders. Increasing livestock producer access to funding (i.e., individual donations or governmental agencies) to implement improved animal husbandry practices could reduce HWCs.