Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Coyotes (Canis latrans) are now recognized as a permanent feature in urban environments across much of North America. Behavioral aversion conditioning, or humane hazing, is increasingly advocated as an effective and compassionate alternative to wildlife management strategies, such as trap and removal. Given a growing public interest in humane hazing, there is a need to synthesize the science regarding methods, outcomes, efficacy, and other relevant considerations to better manage human–coyote conflicts in urban areas. This paper was prepared as an outcome of a workshop held in July 2019 by Coyote Watch Canada (CWC) to synthesize the literature on aversion conditioning. The paper also includes the deployment experiences of members of the CWC Canid Response Team. Herein, we propose best practices to enhance the efficacy of aversion conditioning for the management of urban wildlife, particularly coyotes. We detail recommendations concerning: the importance of consistency, adaptability, humaneness, and clear goals; training and proactive implementation; and the need for a comprehensive wildlife coexistence program. We further detail additional considerations surrounding domestic dogs (C. lupus familiaris), public perceptions, and defining behavior and conflict. We hope this synthesis will assist wildlife managers and local governments in identifying and deploying nonlethal human–coyote conflict mitigation strategies that are effective, humane, and community supported.