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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Order form for HWI monograph, Methods for Managing Human–Deer Conflicts in Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Areas. This monograph identifies challenges and benefits associated with many human–deer conflict mitigation actions as well as methods to monitor the response of deer populations to management actions. Deer exploit urban, suburban, and exurban areas where human populations provide anthropogenic attractants, either intentionally or inadvertently, which often leads to human–deer conflicts. Mitigating actions have varying degrees of efficacy and may not be effective or accepted in every situation. Wildlife and municipal managers must work together to seek methods to reduce attractants, mitigate conflicts, and perpetuate the conservation of wildlife species that adds to the appreciation of nature in our lives.