Agricultural development accelerates the loss of habitat for many wildlife species and brings humans and animals in close proximity, resulting in increased human–wildlife conflict. In Africa, such conflicts contribute to carnivore population declines in the form of human retaliation for livestock depredation. However, little knowledge exists about when and where carnivores attack livestock. Given this need, our objectives were to (1) understand the spatial and temporal variation of human–carnivore conflict and (2) identify conflict-prone areas. We addressed these objectives in 18 Tanzanian villages of the Maasai Steppe using livestock depredation data on lions (Panthera leo), spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and leopards (Panthera pardus) from 2004 to 2007. Over the 4-year period, 1,042 carnivore attacks occurred on livestock, with >50% due to hyenas; shoats (goats and sheep) were the most commonly depredated livestock. Livestock depredation was unevenly distributed across villages. About 39% of all recorded attacks occurred in Selela, followed by Emboreet (16%), and Loiborsoit (11%), while Esilalei, Oltukai, and Engaruka all had >5% of all attacks. Villages with

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